Maslow Reconsidered: a Review of Research on the Need Hierarchy Theory.
- ISSN: 00305073
- ISBN: 0030-5073
- DOI: 10.5465/AMBPP.1973.4981593
- PubMed: 21506202
- arXiv: doi:10.1016/0030-5073(76)90038-6
The uncritical acceptance of Maslow's need hierarchy theory despite the lack of empirical evidence is discussed and the need for a review of recent empirical evidence is emphasized. A review of ten factor-analytic and three ranking studies testing Maslow's theory showed only partial support for the concept of need hierarchy. A large number of cross-sectional studies showed no clear evidence for Maslow's deprivation/domination proposition except with regard to self-actualization. Longitudinal studies testing Maslow's gratification/activation proposition showed no support, and the limited support received from cross-sectional studies is questionable due to numerous measurement problems. The difficulties with testing the theory are discussed and the conceptual, methodological, and measurement problems of the studies reviewed are detailed. The implications of the findings and future directions for research are outlined.