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Background: Obesity causes metabolic disease and is a serious health problem around the world. Polygonum cuspidatum (POCU1b) has been used clinically for the treatment of constipation, gallstones, hepatitis, and inflammation in East Asian countries. The principal aim of this study was to investigate for the first time whether the extract of Polygonum cuspidatum (POCU) biologically affects adipogenesis in 3 T3-L1 preadipocytes.Methods: Fractions (n-hexan, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and water) of POCU ethanol extract were evaluated in vitro for their inhibitory activities on pancreatic lipase. Of the fractions, the n-butanol of POCU ethanol extract (POCU1b) was examined anti-obesity activity in 3 T3-L1 preadipocytes. To examine the inhibitory effect of POCU1b on adipogenesis, 3 T3-L1 preadipocytes were treated every the other day with POCU1b at various concentrations (0 ~ 25 μg/mL) for twelve days. Oil-red O staining and triglyceride content assay were performed to determine the lipid accumulation. The expression of mRNA and proteins associated lipid accumulation was measured using RT-PCR and Western blotting analysis. We also examined the effect of POCU1b on level of phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (pAMPK) in 3 T3-L1 preadipocytes with POCU1b at various concentrations during adipocyte differentiation.Results: POCU1b exhibited the most pronounced inhibitory effects on pancreatic lipase activity. We found that POCU1b inhibited adipocyte differentiation in 3 T3-L1 preadipocytes in a dose-dependent manner, as evidenced by the reduced formation of lipid droplets and decreased glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activity. We also showed that the expression levels of adipocyte differentiation-related protein (ADRP) and perilipin (a protein that coats lipid droplets in adipocytes) were both reduced after POCU1b treatment. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-γ) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-alpha (C/EBP-α) proteins, both major adipogenic transcription factors, were markedly reduced by POCU1b. Moreover, ADRP, perilipin, C/EBP-α, and PPAR-γ mRNA levels were also reduced by POCU1b. Levels of phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (pAMPK) were elevated after POCU1b treatment (5, 10, and 25) in a dose-dependent manner.Conclusions: Taken together, these results suggest that the anti-obesity effects of POCU1b involve the inhibition of pancreatic lipase activity and adipogenesis via the down-regulation of lipid accumulation. © 2013 Kim et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Kim, Y. S., Lee, Y. M., Kim, J. H., & Kim, J. S. (2013). Polygonum cuspidatum inhibits pancreatic lipase activity and adipogenesis via attenuation of lipid accumulation. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 13. https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6882-13-282