Background. Multiple obstructions in the left heart-aorta complex have been associated with poor survival. No consensus exists as to whether these patients will have a favorable outcome with biventricular repair where most advocate a univentricular approach. Methods. Since late 1988, all 11 neonates seen with hypoplastic left heart complex, which includes aortic arch obstruction, underwent biventricular repair. All patients had antegrade aortic flow and no intrinsic aortic or mitral stenosis. Elimination of the extracardiac afterload was achieved by extensive ascending aorta and aortic arch reconstruction with a pulmonary homograft patch. All intracardiac shunts were eliminated to fully preload the left heart. The median age at first operation was 7 days and the mean weight, 3.59 ± 0.49 kg. The echocardiographic variables used to evaluate the left heart-aorta complex were reviewed, and the preoperative and postoperative measurements were compared. Results. There were two early deaths. Four patients had six reoperations for left ventricular outflow tract obstruction, 2 of whom have required prosthetic valve replacement (1, aortic and mitral; 1, aortic), and 2 patients had three reoperations for recurrent coarctation. There was one late death at 3 years from pulmonary hypertension. Mean follow-up was 44 ± 35 months. The 8 current survivors are all in New York Heart Association class I or II. The actuarial survival rate at 8 years is 63%, and the freedom from reoperation at 3 years is 25%. Conclusions. We have successfully achieved biventricular repair in most of the patients with hypoplastic left heart complex, a subset of patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Some growth of the left ventricular structures was already observed at the time of hospital discharge. However, reoperation, particularly for left ventricular outflow tract obstruction, appears likely. Increasing experience will more accurately define predictive criteria for the feasibility of biventricular repair.
Tchervenkov, C. I., Tahta, S. A., Jutras, L. C., & Béland, M. J. (1998). Biventricular repair in neonates with hypoplastic left heart complex. In Annals of Thoracic Surgery (Vol. 66, pp. 1350–1356). Elsevier Inc. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0003-4975(98)00803-0