The main aim of this paper is to show the extent to which environmental proactivity is able to generate competitive advantages in a firm in order to improve their economic-financial performance by introducing the role of managerial perception into the analysis. This study focuses on Spanish wineries and their environmental practices and covers a total of 4598 wineries with a sample of 142 valid responses during the month of November 2015. The results can be summarized as follows. Firstly, there is positive environmental proactivity in terms of obtaining both cost-based and differentiation-based competitive advantages. Likewise, this proactivity has a positive impact on the manager's perception of performance. Secondly, obtaining differentiation-based competitive advantages has a positive impact on the manager's perception of performance although a negative impact on performance itself. There is, however, no significant evidence of the impact of cost-based competitive advantages on financial performance nor on the perception of performance itself, nor the impact of environmental proactivity on financial performance.
Junquera, B., & Barba-Sánchez, V. (2018). Environmental proactivity and firms’ performance: Mediation effect of competitive advantages in Spanish wineries. Sustainability (Switzerland), 10(7). https://doi.org/10.3390/su10072155