Graphitic nitrogen-doped hierarchical porous carbon nanosheets for supercapacitor application were derived from an easily obtained and green silk by simultaneous ZnCl2 activation and FeCl3 graphitization at different heating temperatures. By increasing the heating temperature from 700 to 850 °C, the degree of graphitization and BET surface area rose to their highest levels, while the nitrogen doping content was maintained at 2.24 wt%. Carbonized silk at 850 °C displays a nanosheet morphology and a considerable specific surface area (1285.31 m2 g-1), and it was fabricated into a supercapacitor as an electrode material, exhibiting superior electrochemical performance with a high specific capacitance of 178 F g-1 at 0.5 A g-1 and an excellent rate capability (81% capacitance retention ratio even at 20 A g-1) in 1 mol L-1 H2SO4 electrolyte. A symmetric supercapacitor using carbonized silk at 850 °C as the electrodes has an excellent specific energy of 14.33 W h kg-1 at a power density of 251 W kg-1 operated over a wide voltage range of 2.0 V in aqueous neutral Na2SO4 electrolyte.
Zhang, L., Meng, Z., Qi, Q., Yan, W., Lin, N., & Liu, X. Y. (2018). Aqueous supercapacitors based on carbonized silk electrodes. RSC Advances, 8(39), 22146–22153. https://doi.org/10.1039/c8ra01988f