The identification and proper characterization of pathologic renal intratubular casts can be an arduous task, especially since they often admixed with non-pathologic casts, obfuscating debris and inflammation. The list of pathologic intratubular casts is long, and they can be easily missed or misdiagnosed without a thorough understanding of their pathophysiology and morphologic variety. Correct characterization of tubular casts is important since each cast type has a unique pathogenic mechanism, with specific treatment and prognostic implications. This review discusses the clinicopathologic characteristics of the six most common pathologic casts: light chain, hemoglobin, myoglobin, red cell, neutrophilic and bile casts. We also discuss hyaline and uromodulin casts, the commonly encountered "benign" cast types that share certain histologic features with pathologic casts. We limit the discussion to proteinaceous and cellular intratubular casts, with crystalline casts discussed in a separate review within the same journal issue. While not exhaustive, this review covers pathogenesis, clinical and prognostic significance, and a practical discussion of the histomorphologic spectrum of each cast type, along with commonly encountered pitfalls.
Dvanajscak, Z., Cossey, L. N., & Larsen, C. P. (2020, May 1). A practical approach to the pathology of renal intratubular casts. Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology. W.B. Saunders. https://doi.org/10.1053/j.semdp.2020.02.001