To investigate the association between single nucleotide polymorphism 12 in estrogen receptor α gene and hypospadias, four databases (PubMed, Web of Science, Embase and Cochrane Library) were electronically searched by 2nd November 2015. Finally, four studies were included for our meta-analysis, involving 1379 cases and 1648 controls. A quality assessment was performed using the Newcastle–Ottawa Scale of case–control study. Meta-analysis and publication bias measuring were all done by Stata 12.0. No significant publication bias (PBegg = 0.296, PEgger = 0.161) was found. Overall, there was statistically significant association for recessive genetic model (AA vs. GA + GG: OR 3.45, 95 % CI [1.89, 6.30], P = 0.038). Moreover, the positive result was confirmed using trial sequential analysis even only three original studies. For allele model, there was also statistically significant association (allele A vs. G: OR 1.43, 95 % CI [1.23, 1.67], P = 0.034). Meanwhile, A allele as a risk factor turned out to be true positive by trial sequential analysis. In a word, this meta-analysis suggested that the single nucleotide polymorphism 12 definitely increase the risk of hypospadias.
Deng, C., Dai, R., Li, X., & Liu, F. (2016). Association between SNP12 in estrogen receptor α gene and hypospadias: a systematic review and meta-analysis. SpringerPlus, 5(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s40064-016-2288-0