Histology of the pharyngeal constrictor muscle in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome and non-syndromic children with velopharyngeal insufficiency

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Abstract

Plastic surgeons aim to correct velopharyngeal insufficiency manifest by hypernasal speech with a velopharyngoplasty. The functional outcome has been reported to be worse in patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome than in patients without the syndrome. A possible explanation is the hypotonia that is often present as part of the syndrome. To confirm a myogenic component of the etiology of velopharyngeal insufficiency in children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, specimens of the pharyngeal constrictor muscle were taken from children with and without the syndrome. Histologic properties were compared between the groups. Specimens from the two groups did not differ regarding the presence of increased perimysial or endomysial space, fiber grouping by size or type, internalized nuclei, the percentage type I fibers, or the diameters of type I and type II fibers. In conclusion, a myogenic component of the etiology of velopharyngeal insufficiency in children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome could not be confirmed. © 2011 Widdershoven et al.

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Widdershoven, J. C. C., Spruijt, N. E., Spliet, W. G. M., Breugem, C. C., Kon, M., & van der Molen, A. B. M. (2011). Histology of the pharyngeal constrictor muscle in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome and non-syndromic children with velopharyngeal insufficiency. PLoS ONE, 6(6). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021672

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