A simple diagnostic model has been used to identify the parameters that induce large errors in the simulation of tropical precipitation in atmospheric General Circulation models (GCM). The GCM that have been considered are those developed by the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) and the Japanese Meteorological Agency (JMA). These models participated in the phase II of the Atmospheric Model Inter-comparison Project (AMIP II) and simulated the climate for the period 1979 to 1995. The root mean-square error in the simulation of precipitation in tropical continents was larger in NCEP and NCAR simulations than in the JMA simulation. The large error in the simulation of precipitation in NCEP was due to errors in the vertical profile of water vapour. The large error in precipitation in NCAR in North Africa was due to an error in net radiation (at the top of the atmosphere). The simple diagnostic model predicts that the moisture converge is a nonlinear function of integrated water vapour. The large error in the interannual variance of rainfall in NCEP over India has been shown to be due to this nonlinearity.
Srinivasan, J. (2003). Diagnostic study of errors in the simulation of tropical continental precipitation in general circulation models. Annales Geophysicae, 21(5), 1197–1207. https://doi.org/10.5194/angeo-21-1197-2003