Background: The liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSEC) and Kupffer cells constitute the most powerful scavenger system in the body. Various waste macromolecules, continuously released from tissues in large quantities as a consequence of normal catabolic processes are cleared by the LSEC. In spite of the fact that pig livers are used in a wide range of experimental settings, the scavenger properties of pig LSEC has not been investigated until now. Therefore, we studied the endocytosis and intracellular transport of ligands for the five categories of endocytic receptors in LSEC. Results: Endocytosis of five 125I-labelled molecules: collagen α-chains, FITC-biotin-hyaluronan, mannan, formaldehyde-treated serum albumin (FSA), and aggregated gamma globulin (AGG) was substantial in cultured LSEC. The endocytosis was mediated via the collagen-, hyaluronan-, mannose-, scavenger-, or IgG Fc-receptors, respectively, as judged by the ability of unlabelled ligands to compete with labelled ligands for uptake. Intracellular transport was studied employing a morphological pulse-chase technique. Ninety minutes following administration of red TRITC-FSA via the jugular vein of pigs to tag LSEC lysosomes, cultures of the cells were established, and pulsed with green FITC-labelled collagen, -mannan, and -FSA. By 10 min, the FITC-ligands was located in small vesicles scattered throughout the cytoplasm, with no co-localization with the red lysosomes. By 2 h, the FITC-ligands co-localized with red lysosomes. When LSEC were pulsed with FITC-AGG and TRITC-FSA together, co-localization of the two ligands was observed following a 10 min chase. By 2 h, only partial co-localization was observed; TRITC-FSA was transported to lysosomes, whereas FITC-AGG only slowly left the endosomes. Enzyme assays showed that LSEC and Kupffer cells contained equal specific activities of hexosaminidase, aryl sulphates, acid phosphatase and acid lipase, whereas the specific activities of α-mannosidase, and glucuronidase were higher in LSEC. All enzymes measured showed considerably higher specific activities in LSEC compared to parenchymal cells. Conclusion: Pig LSEC express the five following categories of high capacity endocytic receptors: scavenger-, mannose-, hyaluronan-, collagen-, and IgG Fc-receptors. In the liver, soluble ligands for these five receptors are endocytosed exclusively by LSEC. Furthermore, LSEC contains high specific activity of lysosomal enzymes needed for degradation of endocytosed material. Our observations suggest that pig LSEC have the same clearance activity as earlier described in rat LSEC. © 2004 Elvevold et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Elvevold, K. H., Nedredal, G. I., Revhaug, A., & Smedsrød, B. (2004). Scavenger properties of cultivated pig liver endothelial cells. Comparative Hepatology, 3. https://doi.org/10.1186/1476-5926-3-4