Factors contributing to antiretroviral drug adherence among adults living with HIV or AIDS in a Kenyan rural community

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Abstract

Background: Antiretroviral (ARV) adherence of = 95% is recommended for suppressing HIV. However, studies have shown that the = 95% recommended level is rarely achieved. Objective: This cross-sectional community-based study sought to assess factors contributing to ARV drug adherence among adults living with HIV or AIDS. Setting: The study was conducted in a rural community in Machakos County, Kenya. Methods: The questions used for the study were adapted from the Patient Medicine Adherence Questionnaire (PMAQ), a tool grounded in the Health Belief Model. Adherence to ARV was measured using self-reports and pill counts. The perception social support was measured with a 5-point Likert scale, whereas the type and the number of side effects experienced were recorded using 'yes' and 'no' questions. We used the chi-square test to test associations and binary logistic regression to assess factors explaining dose adherence to ARV. Results: The levels of adherence of 86% using self-reports were significantly higher (p > 0.001) than the pill count of 58.6%. The immediate family was rated high in providing social support (3.7 ± 0.6) followed by social support groups (3.1 ± 0.8). A binary logistic regression analysis was conducted to predict ARV adherence (adherent, non-adherent) using social support, side effects and marital status as explanatory variables. The Wald criterion demonstrated that marital status (p = 0.019) and burden of side effects (p = 0.001) made a significant contribution to the prediction of ARV adherence. Conclusion: The burden of side effects and being a divorcee are primary predictors of ARV adherence.

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Kioko, M. T., & Pertet, A. M. (2017). Factors contributing to antiretroviral drug adherence among adults living with HIV or AIDS in a Kenyan rural community. African Journal of Primary Health Care and Family Medicine, 9(1). https://doi.org/10.4102/phcfm.v9i1.1343

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