Objective: To investigate the possible role of α-fetoprotein (AFP), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and CA-125 in the ovarian follicle. Design: α-Fetoprotein, CEA, and CA-125 were measured in human follicular fluid (FF) and correlated to IVF outcome and gonadotropin and gonadal steroid hormones. Setting: The In Vitro Fertilization Program at Virgen de las Nieves Hospital, Granada, Spain. Patients: Thirty-six FF from 12 infertile women with irreparable tubal damage who underwent treatment for ovarian stimulation with clomiphene citrate, hMG, and hCG. Interventions: Laparoscopic follicular aspiration followed 48 hours later by ET. Main Outcome Measure: Serum and FF AFP, CEA, and CA-125 levels. Results: α-Fetoprotein, CEA, and CA-125 were detected in all samples of serum and FF. There were no significant differences between the serum and FF levels. Follicular fluid AFP, CEA, and CA-125 of fertilized oocytes were similar to those in the unfertilized oocytes group. There were no significant correlations between the FF AFP, CEA, and CA 125 levels and gonadotropin and gonadal steroid hormone levels. Conclusions: α-Fetoprotein, CEA, and CA-125 are present in FF after ovarian stimulation, but the mean intrafollicular levels do not differ significantly regardless of the outcome of oocyte IVF.
Jimena, P., Castilla, J. A., Ramirez, J. P., Gil, T., Acebal, M., Molina, R., & Herruzo, A. J. (1993). Follicular fluid α-fetoprotein, carcinoembryonic antigen, and CA-125 levels in relation to in vitro fertilization and gonadotropin and steroid hormone concentrations. Fertility and Sterility, 59(6), 1257–1260. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0015-0282(16)55986-x