The structure of the human major histocompatability (MHC) class I molecule HLA-A*0301 (HLA-A3) in complex with a nonameric peptide (KLIETYFSK) has been determined by X - ray crystallography to 2.7 Å resolution. HLA-A3 is a predisposing allele for multiple sclerosis (MS), an auto-immune disease of the central nervous system. The KLIETYFSK peptide is a naturally processed epitope of proteolipid protein, a myelin protein and candidate target for immune-mediated myelin destruction in MS. Comparison of the structure of HLA-A3 with that of HLA-A2, an MHC class I molecule which is protective against MS, indicates that both MHC class I molecules present very similar faces for T-cell receptor recognition whilst differing in the specificity of their peptide-binding grooves. These characteristics may underlie the opposing (predisposing versus protective) associations that they exhibit both in humans and in mouse models of MS - like disease. Furthermore, subtle alterations within the peptide-binding groove of HLA-A3 and other A3-like MHC class I molecules, members of the so-called A3 superfamily, may be sufficient to alter their presentation of autoantigen peptides such as KLIETYFSK. This in turn may modulate their contribution to the associated risk of autoimmune disease. © 2011 International Union of Crystallography.
McMahon, R. M., Friis, L., Siebold, C., Friese, M. A., Fugger, L., & Jones, E. Y. (2011). Structure of HLA-A*0301 in complex with a peptide of proteolipid protein: Insights into the role of HLA - A alleles in susceptibility to multiple sclerosis. Acta Crystallographica Section D: Biological Crystallography, 67(5), 447–454. https://doi.org/10.1107/S0907444911007888