The synthesis of Vi polysaccharide, a major virulence determinant in Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (S. Typhi), is under the control of two regulatory systems, ompR-envZ and rscB-rscC, which respond to changes in osmolarity. Some S. Typhi isolates exhibit over-expression of Vi polysaccharide, which masks clinical detection of LPS O-antigen. This variation in Vi polysaccharide and O-antigen display (VW variation) has been observed since the initial studies of S. Typhi. We have reported that the status of the rpoS gene is responsible for this phenomenon. We review the regulatory network of the Vi polysaccharide, linking osmolarity and RpoS expression. Also, we discuss how this may impact live attenuated Salmonella vaccine development.
Santander, J., Roland, K. L., & Curtiss, R. (2008). Regulation of Vi capsular polysaccharide synthesis in Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi. Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, 2(6), 412–420. https://doi.org/10.3855/jidc.154