Salmonella invade nonphagocytic cells by eliciting their own internalization; upon contact with the host cell, the bacteria induce membrane ruffles highly localized to the point of contact between the invading bacterium and the host cell [1, 2]. The bacterium is then internalized into an unusual cytosolic organelle, the Salmonella-containing vacuole (SCV). Early endosomal markers (including EEA1) have recently been shown to be associated with the SCV shortly after invasion . EEA1, a protein involved in early endosome fusion, is recruited to early endosomal membranes in part by the interaction between its FYVE finger and phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate [Ptdlns(3)P] , a characteristic lipid of early endosomes. This suggests a possible role for Ptdlns(3)P during Salmonella infection. To investigate this, we generated a highly specific probe for Ptdlns(3)P that was used to follow invasion of Salmonella in nonphagocytic cells. Here, we show that Ptdlns(3)P is present on the membranes of SCVs shortly after invasion and also that it is present on the membrane ruffles produced immediately prior to invasion. We also show that this specific probe cycles on and off the membranes of nascent SCVs even when Ptdlns 3-kinase activity is inhibited, demonstrating that invading Salmonella influence the composition of the membranes that envelop them during invasion.
Pattni, K., Jepson, M., Stenmark, H., & Banting, G. (2001). A Ptdlns(3)P-specific probe cycles on and off host cell membranes during Salmonella invasion of mammalian cells. Current Biology, 11(20), 1636–1642. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0960-9822(01)00486-9