Background: The use of expanded criteria donor kidneys (ECD) had been associated with worse outcomes. Whole gene expression of pre-implantation allograft biopsies from deceased donor kidneys (DDKs) was evaluated to compare the effect of pulsatile pump preservation (PPP) vs. cold storage preservation (CSP) on standard and ECD kidneys. Methodology/Principal Findings: 99 pre-implantation DDK biopsies were studied using gene expression with GeneChips. Kidneys transplant recipients were followed post transplantation for 35.8 months (range = 24-62). The PPP group included 60 biopsies (cold ischemia time (CIT) = 1,367+/-509 minutes) and the CSP group included 39 biopsies (CIT = 1,022+/-485 minutes) (P<0.001). Donor age (42.0±14.6 vs. 34.1±14.2 years, P = 0.009) and the percentage of ECD kidneys (PPP = 35% vs. CSP = 12.8%, P = 0.012) were significantly different between groups. A two-sample t-test was performed, and probe sets having a P<0.001 were considered significant. Probe set level linear models were fit using cold ischemia time and CSP/PPP as independent variables to determine significant probe sets (P<0.001) between groups after adjusting for cold ischemia time. Thus, 43 significant genes were identified (P<0.001). Over-expression of genes associated with inflammation (CD86, CD209, CLEC4, EGFR2, TFF3, among others) was observed in the CSP group. Cell-to-cell signaling and interaction, and antigen presentation were the most important pathways with genes significantly over-expressed in CSP kidneys. When the analysis was restricted to ECD kidneys, genes involved in inflammation were also differentially up-regulated in ECD kidneys undergoing CSP. However, graft survival at the end of the study was similar between groups (P = 0.2). Moreover, the incidence of delayed graft function was not significant between groups. Conclusions/Significance: Inflammation was the most important up-regulated pattern associated with pre-implantation biopsies undergoing CSP even when the PPP group has a larger number of ECD kidneys. No significant difference was observed in delayed graft function incidence and graft function post-transplantation. These findings support the use of PPP in ECD donor kidneys. © 2012 Mas et al.
Mas, V. R., Archer, K. J., Dumur, C. I., Scian, M. J., Suh, J. L., King, A. L., … Maluf, D. G. (2012). Reduced expression of inflammatory genes in deceased donor kidneys undergoing pulsatile pump preservation. PLoS ONE, 7(4). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0035526