Twelve male subjects were exposed to a toluene concentration of about 300 mg/m3 in the inspiratory air during rest and/or physical exercise on a bicycle ergometer. Each subject was exposed during four consecutive 30-min periods. The uptake of toluene was about 50% of the inspired amount at rest, with a decrease to about 30% at a work load of 150 W during the fourth period. The total uptake of toluene during 2 h of work at 50 W was about 2.4 times higher than at rest. There was a close linear correlation between the alveolar and arterial concentrations of toluene, both during and after exposure. The means of the exhaled amounts of unchanged toluene during the first 20 h after exposure ranged between 7 and 14% of the amount taken up. The urinary excretion of hippuric acid indicated an influence of food, especially at low uptake levels.
Carlsson, A. (1982). Exposure to toluene. Uptake, distribution and elimination in man. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 8(1), 43–55. https://doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.2497