Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP) is the most common pathogen of pyogenic liver abscess in East and Southeast Asia and diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major risk factor. The effect and mechanism of diabetes on KP liver abscess was examined in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice and Akita mice (C57BL/6J-Ins2Akita). KP translocation to liver and plasma alaine transaminase levels were increased and liver clearance of KP was decreased in DM mice. Diabetic mice exhibited overgrowth of Enterococcus as well as E.coli and decreased lactobacilli/bifidas growth in intestine, increased intestinal iNOS protein and nitrite levels in portal vein, and increased IL-1β and TNF-α expression of Kupffer cells. Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) or dead L. salivarius (dLac) supplementation reversed diabetes-induced enteric dysbiosis, NO levels in portal vein, and KP translocation to liver. L-NAME treatment decreased intestinal iNOS protein expression as well as Kupffer cell activation and increased liver clearance of KP in DM mice. Dead E.coli (2×108 CFU/ml) feeding for one week induced iNOS and TLR4 expression of intestine in germ-free (GF) mice. Dead bacteria feeding induced IL-1β and TNF-α expression of Kupffer cells in GF mice but not in GF TLR4-/- mice. In conclusion, balance of intestinal microflora is important for preventing intestinal iNOS expression, Kupffer cell activation, and KP liver translocation in diabetes. Reversal of diabetes-induced enteric dysbiosis with FOS or dead L. salivarius decreases diabetes-induced intestinal iNOS expression and KP liver translocation. Diabetes induces Kupffer cell activation and KP liver translocation through enteric dysbiosis and nitric oxide production.
Lin, S. H., Chung, P. H., Wu, Y. Y., Fung, C. P., Hsu, C. M., & Chen, L. W. (2017). Inhibition of nitric oxide production reverses diabetes-induced Kupffer cell activation and Klebsiella pneumonia liver translocation. PLoS ONE, 12(5). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0177269