Since the mechanism of human diabetic peripheral neuropathy and vascular disease in type 1 diabetes mellitus remains unknown, we assessed whether sympathetic transmitter overflow is altered by this disease and associated to vascular dysfunction. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (STZ)-treatment and compared to vehicle-treated rats. Aliquots of the ex vivo perfused rat arterial mesenteric preparation, denuded of the endothelial layer, were collected to quantify analytically sympathetic nerve co-transmitters overflow secreted by the isolated mesenteries of both groups of rats. Noradrenaline (NA), neuropeptide tyrosine (NPY), and ATP/metabolites were detected before, during, and after electrical field stimulation (EFS, 20 Hz) of the nerve terminals surrounding the mesenteric artery. NA overflow was comparable in both groups; however, basal or EFS-secreted ir-NPY was 26% reduced (p < 0.05) in diabetics. Basal and EFS-evoked ATP and adenosine (ADO) overflow to the arterial mesentery perfusate increased twofold and was longer lasting in diabetics; purine tissue content was 37.8% increased (p < 0.05) in the mesenteries from STZ-treated group of rats. Perfusion of the arterial mesentery vascular territory with 100 μM ATP, 100 nM 2-MeSADP, or 1 μM UTP elicited vasodilator responses of the same magnitude in controls or diabetics, but the increase in luminally accessible NO was 60-70% lower in diabetics (p < 0.05). Moreover, the concentration-response curve elicited by two NO donors was displaced downwards (p < 0.01) in diabetic rats. Parallel studies using primary cultures of endothelial cells from the arterial mesentery vasculature revealed that mechanical stimulation induced a rise in extracellular nucleotides, which in the cells from diabetic rats was larger and longer-lasting when comparing the extracellular release of ATP and ADO values to those of vehicle-treated controls. A 5 min challenge with purinergic agonists elicited a cell media NO rise, which was reduced in the endothelial cells from diabetic rats. Present findings provide neurochemical support for the diabetes-induced neuropathy and show that mesenteric endothelial cells alterations in response to mechanical stimulation are compatible with the endothelial dysfunction related to vascular disease progress.
Donoso, M. V., Mascayano, M. J., Poblete, I. M., & Huidobro-Toro, J. P. (2018). Increased ATP and ADO overflow from sympathetic nerve endings and mesentery endothelial cells plus reduced nitric oxide are involved in diabetic neurovascular dysfunction. Frontiers in Pharmacology, 9(MAY). https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2018.00546