This study aims to investigate Ni–Mo/γAl2O3 and Ni–La/Zn-ZSM-5–γAl2O3 catalysts, which convert methyl esters into various compounds with a similar composition to those found in diesel fuels. The catalysts were synthesized by impregnation using two different routes and characterized by atomic absorption spectrometry, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller, and scanning electron microscopy. The acid strength distribution indicates a relatively high concentration of weak acid centers for both materials. The disposal of the catalysts into the reactor system is an important factor for driving the process toward the desired reaction products. The hydrodeoxygenation becomes important and paraffins are formed as intermediaries when Ni–Mo/γAl2O3 is first disposed into the reactor, whereas hydrocracking is poor and the dehydrocyclization does not occur in the case of Ni–La/Zn-ZSM-5–γAl2O3 as first layer. Triple-layered catalytic systems enhance the production of n-paraffins with high carbon number, mainly C17 and C18, which are important as diesel component. The effect of temperature was also studied and it was found that aromatics are mainly formed over double-layered catalytic systems by varying the temperature. In the case of triple-layered catalysts, the change in the product composition from saturated hydrocarbons with 12–18 carbon atoms to aromatics was observed by increasing the temperature from 420 to 445 °C. An interesting finding by the addition of n-octane in the feed was observed and the considerable increase in C8 aromatics involved the dehydrocyclization that occurred faster than hydrocracking.
Dusescu, C., Juganaru, T., Bombos, D., Mihai, O., & Popovici, D. (2018). Multilayered catalysts for fatty acid ester hydrotreatment into fuel range hydrocarbons. Comptes Rendus Chimie, 21(3–4), 288–302. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.crci.2017.06.006