The diagnosis of antiphospholipid syndrome is predominantly made in the laboratory and depends on the persistent presence of antiphospholipid antibodies in individuals with thrombosis or pregnancy morbidity. Correct diagnosis of the syndrome is imperative to prevent unnecessary long secondary thromboprophylaxis. Three antiphospholipid antibody subtypes are included in the classification criteria of the antiphospholipid syndrome: lupus anticoagulants, anticardiolipin antibodies and anti-β2-glycoprotein I antibodies. Only lupus anticoagulants are undisputedly associated with thrombosis, which is why the serological criteria of the antiphospholipid syndrome are under debate. All of the assays used to detect antiphospholipid antibodies are in need of better standardization, although progress has been made in the detection of lupus anticoagulants. The inconsistent association between both anticardiolipin and anti-β2-glycoprotein I antibodies and thrombosis is a cause for alarm. We are in need of better assays to detect those individuals at risk for thrombosis and population-based prospective studies to provide us with accurate risk assessments. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.
Urbanus, R. T., & de Groot, P. G. (2011). Antiphospholipid antibodies - We are not quite there yet. Blood Reviews, 25(2), 97–106. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.blre.2010.12.001