Concept Development of “Nursing Presence”: Application of Schwartz-Barcott and Kim's Hybrid Model

Citations of this article
Mendeley users who have this article in their library.


Purpose Although nursing presence is a foundation for professional nursing practice and has known positive outcomes such as patient satisfaction and recovery; it is not well known. The ambiguity surrounding how to define nursing presence has challenged its evaluation and education. Therefore, in an attempt to discover attributes of this underdeveloped concept and studying it in a new context, concept development is essential. The purpose of this study was to clarify the concept of nursing presence through concept development, to produce a tentative definition of this subjective concept in clinical practice. Methods Concept development was carried out using Schwartz-Barcott and Kim's hybrid model including, theoretical, fieldwork and final analysis phases. First, 29 related articles available on the databases from 1990–2015 were reviewed and analyzed. Then, 22 interviews were conducted with 19 participants, followed with inductive content analysis. At last, an overall definition was performed. Results Nursing presence can be explained as co-constructed interaction identified by deliberate focus, task-oriented/patient-oriented relationship, accountability, clarification, and ubiquitous participation. Nursing presence requires clinical competence, self-actualization, reciprocating openness, and conducive working environment. Worthwhile communications, balance/recovery, and growth and transcendence are the main consequences of this concept. Conclusion Co-constructed interaction underscored the value of the nursing presence as an integral component of caring with humanistic and patient-centered approaches. The findings could help clinical nurses have a better understanding of the nursing presence. Findings also can improve educators' and managers' knowledge for developing and conducting appropriate education strategies and caring activities to facilitate the promotion of nursing presence.




Mohammadipour, F., Atashzadeh-Shoorideh, F., Parvizy, S., & Hosseini, M. (2017). Concept Development of “Nursing Presence”: Application of Schwartz-Barcott and Kim’s Hybrid Model. Asian Nursing Research, 11(1), 19–29.

Register to see more suggestions

Mendeley helps you to discover research relevant for your work.

Already have an account?

Save time finding and organizing research with Mendeley

Sign up for free