This review will provide new information related to pathophysiology and management of specific diseases that have been addressed by selected articles published in the Italian Journal of Pediatrics in 2013, focusing on allergology, endocrinology, gastroenterology, hypertension, infectious diseases, neonatology, neurology, nutrition and respiratory tract illnesses in children. Recommendations for interpretation of skin prick test to foods in atopic eczema, management of allergic conjunctivitis, hypertension and breastfeeding in women treated with antiepileptic drugs and healthy breakfast have been reported. Epidemiological studies have given emphasis to high incidence of autoimmune disorders in patients with Turner syndrome, increasing prevalence of celiac disease, frequency of hypertension in adolescents, incidence and risk factor for retinopathy of prematurity. Advances in prevention include elucidation of the role of probiotics in reducing occurrence of allergies and feeding intolerance, and events of foetal life that influence later onset of diseases. Mechanistic studies suggested a role for vitamin D deficiency in asthma and type 1 diabetes and for reactivation of Varicella-Zoster virus in aseptic meningitis. Regarding diagnosis, a new mean for the diagnosis of hyperbilirubinaemia in newborns, a score for recognition of impaired nutritional status and growth and criteria for early Dyke-Davidoff-Masson Syndrome have been suggested. New therapeutic approaches consist of use of etanercept for reducing insulin dose in type 1 diabetes, probiotics in atopic eczema, and melatonin in viral infections. © 2014 Caffarelli et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Caffarelli, C., Santamaria, F., Vottero, A., Dascola, C. P., Mirra, V., Sperli, F., & Bernasconi, S. (2014, July 12). Progress in pediatrics in 2013: Choices in allergology, endocrinology, gastroenterology, hypertension, infectious diseases, neonatology, neurology, nutrition and respiratory tract illnesses. Italian Journal of Pediatrics. BioMed Central Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1186/1824-7288-40-62