The current ponding system applied for palm oil mill effluent (POME) treatment often struggle to comply with the POME discharge limit, thus it has become a major environmental concern. Batch adsorption study was conducted for reducing the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Total Suspended Solids (TSS) and Color of pre-treated POME using coconut shell-based activated carbon (CS-AC). The CS-AC showed BET surface area of 744.118 m2/g, with pore volume of 04359cm3/g. The adsorption uptake was studied at various contact time and POME initial concentration. The CS-AC exhibited good ability with average percentage removal of 70% for COD, TSS and Color. The adsorption uptake increased over time and attained equilibrium in 30 hours. The equilibrium data were analyzed using the Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm models. Based on the coefficient regression and sum of squared errors, the Langmuir isotherm described the adsorption of COD satisfactorily, while best described the TSS and Color adsorption; giving the highest adsorption capacity of 10.215 mg/g, 1.435 mg/g, and 63.291 PtCo/g respectively. The CS-AC was shown to be a promising adsorbent for treating POME and was able to comply with the Environmental Quality Act (EQA) discharge limit. The outcome of treated effluent using CS-AC was shown to be cleaner than the industrial biologically treated effluent, achieved within shorter treatment time.
Kaman, S. P. D., Tan, I. A. W., & Lim, L. L. P. (2016). Palm oil mill effluent treatment using coconut shell - Based activated carbon: Adsorption equilibrium and isotherm. In MATEC Web of Conferences (Vol. 87). EDP Sciences. https://doi.org/10.1051/matecconf/20178703009