Natural killer (NK)/T cell lymphoid malignancy comprises extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma (ENKTL) and aggressive NK cell leukemia (ANKL), and the outcomes for advanced or relapsed/refractory ENKTL and ANKL remain poor. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) can be used as a frontline consolidation treatment to prevent the relapse of advanced disease or as salvage treatment after chemotherapy for relapsed sensitive disease. We retrospectively analyzed 36 patients (ENKTL, n = 26; ANKL, n = 10) who underwent upfront (n = 19) and salvage allogeneic SCT (n = 17) at 6 hospitals. Patients received myeloablative (n = 25) or reduced-intensity (n =11) conditioning regimens depending on the institute's policy. The median age at the time of allogeneic SCT was 37 years (range, 17 to 62), and more patients with ANKL (8/10) received upfront allogeneic SCT than ENKTL patients (11/26). Disease status before allogeneic SCT, conditioning regimen, and donor source did not differ between upfront and salvage allogeneic SCT groups. Febrile neutropenia (n = 20) and acute graft-versus-host disease (n = 16) were common adverse events. The median overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) after allogeneic SCT were 11.8 months and 10.0 months, respectively. Twelve patients died from disease relapse and 12 from nondisease-related causes. Ten deaths occurred within 100 days after allogeneic SCT (10/24); these were mostly related to disease relapse (n = 8). The OS after allogeneic SCT did not differ between ENKTL and ANKL (P =.550) or between upfront and salvage SCT (P =.862). Complete chimerism was significantly associated with better PFS (P <.001). No significant differences in PFS were observed based on the conditioning regimen or source of stem cells (P >.05). Allogeneic SCT may be beneficial for patients with ENKTL and ANKL given that some patients were able to maintain their remission after allogeneic SCT. However, allogeneic SCT should only be performed in highly selected patients because the risks of disease relapse and nondisease-related mortality remain high.
Jeong, S. H., Song, H. N., Park, J. S., Yang, D. H., Koh, Y., Yoon, S. S., … Kim, S. J. (2018). Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation for Patients with Natural Killer/T Cell Lymphoid Malignancy: A Multicenter Analysis Comparing Upfront and Salvage Transplantation. Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation, 24(12), 2471–2478. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2018.07.034