Background Although about half of patients with spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) face ongoing necrosis, conservative therapy is recommended due to a high complication rate in angiography-guided percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The aim of this study was to investigate clinical outcomes of SCAD treated by optical coherence tomography (OCT)-guided PCI. Methods This study consisted of consecutive 306 patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) who underwent OCT-guided PCI. Based on the culprit lesion morphology by OCT, patients were assigned to four groups: a SCAD group, a plaque rupture (PR) group, a calcified nodule (CN) group, and an undetermined etiology (UE) group. Successful PCI was defined as thrombolysis in myocardial infarction flow grade 3 in final angiography without any complications. Primary endpoint was defined as occurrence rate of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) including cardiac death, myocardial infarction, and unstable angina pectoris. Results OCT revealed 12 SCADs, 149 PRs, 16 CNs, and 129 UEs, respectively. No significant difference was observed in the success rate of PCI (SCAD 91.7%, PR 85.2%, CN 81.2%, UE 86.8%, p = 0.88), while wire repositioning was needed in 2 SCAD cases (p < 0.01). The mean follow-up periods were 17.1 ± 13.3 months. No significant difference was observed in MACE among the groups (p = 0.56). Conclusions The clinical outcomes of OCT-guided PCI for SCAD were favorable, as well as those for other ACS etiologies. OCT-guided PCI could become a therapeutic option for SCAD compromised with ongoing necrosis.
Nishiguchi, T., Tanaka, A., Taruya, A., Ozaki, Y., Nakai, M., Teraguchi, I., … Akasaka, T. (2017). Prognosis of spontaneous coronary artery dissection treated by percutaneous coronary intervention with optical coherence tomography. Journal of Cardiology, 70(6), 524–529. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jjcc.2017.03.009