Secretory group II (sPLA2) and cytosolic (cPLA2) phospholipases A2 and cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) play a pivotal role in release of proinflammatory eicosanoids. Excessive activity of sPLA2 per se can also propagate inflammation. Endogenous control of the above enzymes has not been completely elucidated. We investigated the combined impact of promoting cytokines and inhibitory peptide growth factors on the expression of mRNA of the above enzymes, on protein content and extracellular release of sPLA2 and on PGE2 production in osteoblasts (FRCO). The synthesis and release of sPLA2 were enhanced by about 20-fold by 0.5 ng/ml IL-1β or by 50 ng/ml of TNFα. Coaddition of both cytokines resulted in synergistic 150-fold increase in the release of sPLA2 implying the existence of two paths of induction. IL-1β and TNFα markedly enhanced the transcription of sPLA2 mRNA. Kinetic study showed that IL-1/TNF initiated sPLA2 release after 12 h, reaching maximum at 48 h. IL-1α was a weak stimulator of sPLA2 release, whereas IL- 6, IL-8, IGF, IFN-γ, growth hormone, insulin and GM-CSF were not stimulatory. Peptide growth hormones TGFβ, PDGF-BB, EGF and bFGF markedly inhibited the extracellular release of sPLA2. TGFβ and PDGF-BB significantly reduced the level of sPLA2 mRNA, thus acting upon transcription whereas EGF and bFGF were not inhibitory, acting rather upon the translational or posttranslational steps. IL-1/TNF and growth factors had no significant effect on cPLA2 mRNA expression. Cox-2 mRNA expression was markedly enhanced by IL-1/TNF and suppressed by all growth factors tested. Cytokines enhanced the extracellular release of PGE2 and further enhancement was induced by growth factors with the exception of TGFβ. Cycloheximide abolished completely the release of sPLA2 and markedly reduced the release of PGE2 from cytokine-stimulated FRCO, regardless of whether growth factors were present or not. NS-398, a specific inhibitor of Cox-2 abolished almost completely the release of PGE2 from cytokine-stimulated cells, regardless of the presence of growth factors. Thus, different signalling mechanisms are involved in the impact of growth factors on mRNA expression of sPLA2, cPLA2 and Cox-2. The differences between the impact on FRCO sPLA2 and that reported in other cells, imply that endogenous control of arachidonic acid cascade is cell-specific.
Pruzanski, W., Stefanski, E., Vadas, P., Kennedy, B. P., & Van Den Bosch, H. (1998). Regulation of the cellular expression of secretory and cytosolic phospholipases A2, and cyclooxygenase-2 by peptide growth factors. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular Cell Research, 1403(1), 47–56. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-4889(98)00029-9