Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 plays a key role in tumor invasion. Inhibitors of MMP-9 were screened from Metasequoia glyptostroboides (Dawn redwood) and one potent inhibitor, isoginkgetin, a biflavonoid, was identified. Noncytotoxic levels of isoginkgetin decreased MMP-9 production profoundly, but up-regulated the level of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1, an inhibitor of MMP-9, in HT1080 human fibrosarcoma cells. The major mechanism of Ras-dependent MMP-9 production in HT1080 cells was phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/ nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation. Expression of dominant-active H-Ras and p85 (a subunit of PI3K) increased MMP-9, activity, whereas dominant-negative forms of these molecules decreased the level of MMP-9. H-Ras did not increase MMP-9 in the presence of a PI3K inhibitor, LY294002, and a NF-κB inhibitor, SN50. Further studies showed that isoginkgetin regulated MMP-9 production via PI3K/Akt/ NF-κB pathway, as evidenced by the findings that isoginkgetin inhibited activities of both Akt and NF-κB. PI3K/Akt is a well-known key pathway for cell invasion, and isoginkgetin inhibited HT1080 tumor cell invasion substantially. Isoginkgetin was also quite effective in inhibiting the activities of Akt and MMP-9 in MDA-MB-231 breast carcinomas and B16F1O melanoma. Moreover, isoginkgetin treatment resulted in marked decrease in invasion of these cells. In summary, PI3K/ Akt is a major pathway for MMP-9 expression and isoginkgetin markedly decreased MMP-9 expression and invasion through inhibition of this pathway. This suggests that isoginkgetin could be a potential candidate as a therapeutic agent against tumor invasion. Copyright © 2006 American Association for Cancer Research.
Yoon, S. O., Shin, S., Lee, H. J., Chun, H. K., & Chung, A. S. (2006). Isoginkgetin inhibits tumor cell invasion by regulating phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt-dependent matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression. Molecular Cancer Therapeutics, 5(11), 2666–2675. https://doi.org/10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-06-0321