Cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61 (CYR61) is an extracellular matrix-associated protein involved in survival, tumorigenesis, and drug resistance. Therefore, we examined the effects of flavones against CYR61-overexpressing human gastric adenocarcinoma AGS (AGS-cyr61) cells, which show remarkable resistance to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), adriamycin (ADR), tamoxifen (TAM), paclitaxel (PAC), and docetaxel (DOC). Among the tested flavones, quercetin had the lowest 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) and significantly reduced the viability of AGS-cyr61 cells compared with AGS cells. Quercetin: (1) reduced multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 and nuclear factor (NF)-kappa B p65 subunit levels; (2) reversed multidrug resistance (MDR); (3) inhibited colony formation and induced caspase-dependent apoptosis; and (4) suppressed migration and down-regulated epithelial-mesenchymal transition-related proteins in AGS-cyr61. Moreover, AGS-cyr61 cells treated with quercetin concentrations close to the IC50 and simultaneously treated with 5-FU or ADR in the sub-lethal range showed strong synergism between quercetin and these two drugs. These findings indicate that CYR61 is a potential regulator of drug resistance and that quercetin may be a novel agent for improving the efficacy of anticancer drugs in AGS-cyr61 cells.
Hyun, H. B., Moon, J. Y., & Cho, S. K. (2018). Quercetin suppresses CYR61-mediated multidrug resistance in human gastric adenocarcinoma AGS cells. Molecules, 23(2). https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23020209