Multimodal Liver-Directed Management of Neuroendocrine Hepatic Metastases

  • Lewis M
  • Hubbard J
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A preponderance of patients with neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) will experience hepatic metastases during the course of their disease. Many diagnoses of NETs are made only after the neoplasms have spread from their primary gastroenteropancreatic sites to the liver. This paper reviews current evidence-based treatments for neuroendocrine hepatic metastases, encompassing surgery, hepatic artery embolization (HAE) and chemoembolization (HACE), radioembolization, hepatic artery infusion (HAI), thermal ablation (radiofrequency, microwave, and cryoablation), alcohol ablation, and liver transplantation as therapeutic modalities. Consideration of a multidisciplinary approach to liver-directed therapy is strongly encouraged to limit morbidity and mortality in this patient population.




Lewis, M. A., & Hubbard, J. (2011). Multimodal Liver-Directed Management of Neuroendocrine Hepatic Metastases. International Journal of Hepatology, 2011, 1–12.

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