Renal Disease Haemogram and Plasma Biochemistry in Green Iguana

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Haemogram and plasma biochemistry were investigated in 20 green iguanas suffering from renal disease. Anorexia was present in 15 (75%) patients, frequently associated with limited hind leg movement (50%). Constipation as a secondary complication of the colon compression by the enlarged kidneys was observed in 8 (40%) iguanas. Swelling of the hind legs appeared in 6 iguanas (30%). The post-mortem examination revealed renal oedema, tubular necrosis, tubular and/or interstitial nephritis, renal gout with tophi formation in 62.5%, 62.5%, 40.0% and 37.5% iguanas, respectively. Evaluation of the haemogram revealed in these patients heterophilia, eosinophilia and azurophilia (means 5.3, 0.6 and 0.9 G/l, respectively), the number of heterophils and eosinophils have increased significantly (p < 0.05). Mean values for the packed cell volume, RBC counts, WBC counts, basophils and monocytes (0.35 l/l, 1.2 T/l, 12.8, 0.4 and 0.8 G/l, respectively) were within physiological ranges, the number of lymphocytes (4.7 G/l) was lower (p < 0.05) than normal ranges for healthy iguanas. Mean values for total protein, ALT, GGT, glucose, cholesterol, calcium and potassium in plasma were within physiological ranges for green iguanas. The concentrations of creatinine, AST, uric acid and phosphorus (61.07 μmol/l, 5.02 μkat/l, 306.70 μmol/l and 5.95 mmol/l, respectively) in green iguanas with renal disease were increased (p < 0.05), whereas the activity of ALP (0.38 μkat/l) was decreased (p < 0.05). As a consequence of the elevated phosphorus levels the P:Ca ratio has increased significantly to 3.52 (p < 0.05). Evaluation of the haemogram as well as plasma biochemistry may be regarded as a useful tool in the diagnosis of renal failure in green iguanas.

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Knotek, Z., Hauptman, K., Knotková, Z., Hájková, P., & Tichý, F. (2002). Renal Disease Haemogram and Plasma Biochemistry in Green Iguana. Acta Veterinaria Brno, 71(3), 333–340.

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