Addition of 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels to the Deyo-Charlson Comorbidity Index improves 90-day mortality prediction in critically ill patients

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Abstract

Background: The Deyo-Charlson Comorbidity Index (DCCI) has low predictive value in the intensive care unit (ICU). Our goal was to determine whether addition of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels to the DCCI improved 90-day mortality prediction in critically ill patients. Methods: Plasma 25OHD levels, DCCI, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) scores were assessed within 24 h of admission in 310 ICU patients. Receiver operating characteristic curves of the prediction scores, without and with the addition of 25OHD levels, for 90-day mortality were constructed and the areas under the curve (AUC) were compared for equality. Results: Mean (standard deviation) plasma 25OHD levels, DCCI, and APACHE II score were 19 (SD 8) ng/mL, 4 (SD 3), and 17 (SD 9), respectively. Overall 90-day mortality was 19 %. AUC for DCCI vs. DCCI + 25OHD was 0.68 (95 % CI 0.58-0.77) vs. 0.75 (95 % CI 0.67-0.83); p < 0.001. AUC for APACHE II vs. APACHE II + 25OHD was 0.81 (95 % CI 0.73-0.88) vs. 0.82 (95 % CI 0.75-0.89); p < 0.001. There was a significant difference between the AUC for DCCI + 25OHD and APACHE II + 25OHD (p = 0.04) but not between the AUC for DCCI + 25OHD and APACHE II (p = 0.12). Conclusions: In our cohort of ICU patients, the addition of 25OHD levels to the DCCI improved 90-day mortality prediction compared to the DCCI alone. Moreover, the predictive capability of DCCI + 25OHD was comparable to that of APACHE II. Future prospective studies are needed to validate our findings and to determine whether the use of DCCI + 25OHD can influence clinical decision-making.

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Mahato, B., Otero, T. M. N., Holland, C. A., Giguere, P. T., Bajwa, E. K., Camargo, C. A., & Quraishi, S. A. (2016). Addition of 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels to the Deyo-Charlson Comorbidity Index improves 90-day mortality prediction in critically ill patients. Journal of Intensive Care, 4(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s40560-016-0165-0

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