Objective: We compared the perioperative outcomes of patients with bladder cancer according to three different procedures: robot-assisted laparoscopic radical cystectomy (RALC), laparoscopic radical cystectomy (LRC), and open radical cystectomy (ORC). Methods: From April 2008 to March 2017, 36 consecutive patients underwent radical cystectomy and ileal conduit with RALC (n = 10), LRC (n = 10), or ORC (n = 16). All patients underwent RALC and LRC with extracorporeal urinary diversion. Perioperative data were patient demographics, perioperative laboratory data including hematocrit and creatinine, intraoperative crystalloids and colloids, estimated blood loss (EBL), allogeneic transfusion, respiratory parameters including maximum end-tidal carbon dioxide (EtCO 2 ) and respiratory rate, arterial blood gas data including highest pH, partial pressure of CO 2 (PaCO 2 ), partial pressure of oxygen (PaO 2 ), operative time, opiate consumption including intraoperative and postoperative anesthesia, time of hospital stay, time to oral intake and normal diet, and adverse events. Results: EBL was less for RALC than for other procedures (p = 0.0004). No blood transfusions were performed for RALC, but ORC required significant blood transfusions (p = 0.003). Respiratory rate was highest and PaCO 2 was lowest for RALC. Preoperative creatinine levels were significantly worse for the RALC group, but no significant differences were noted after surgery. There were no significant differences among the groups in regard to hematocrit levels. Operative time, laparoscopic time, intraoperative anesthesia, and postoperative anesthesia did not differ among the groups. High-grade adverse events were only seen for ORC. Conclusion: Although RALC required a steep Trendelenburg position, which might add elements of risk, RALC was safe even for this small cohort.
Matsumoto, K., Tabata, K. ichi, Hirayama, T., Shimura, S., Nishi, M., Ishii, D., … Iwamura, M. (2019). Robot-assisted laparoscopic radical cystectomy is a safe and effective procedure for patients with bladder cancer compared to laparoscopic and open surgery: Perioperative outcomes of a single-center experience. Asian Journal of Surgery, 42(1), 189–196. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asjsur.2017.11.002