Simultaneous assessment of clearance, metabolism, induction, and drug-drug interaction potential using a long-term in vitro liver model for a novel hepatitis b virus inhibitor

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Abstract

Long-term in vitro liver models are now widely explored for human hepatic metabolic clearance prediction, enzyme phenotyping, cross-species metabolism, comparison of low clearance drugs, and induction studies. Here, we present studies using a long-term liver model, which show how metabolism and active transport, drug-drug interactions, and enzyme induction in healthy and diseased states, such as hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, may be assessed in a single test system to enable effective data integration for physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling. The approach is exemplified in the case of (3S)-4-[[(4R)-4-(2-Chloro-4-fluorophenyl)-5-methoxycarbonyl-2-thiazol-2-yl-1,4-dihydropyrimi-din-6-yl]methyl]morpholine-3-carboxylic acid RO6889678, a novel inhibitor of HBV with a complex absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) profile. RO6889678 showed an intracellular enrichment of 78-fold in hepatocytes, with an apparent intrinsic clearance of 5.2 ml/min per mg protein and uptake and biliary clearances of 2.6 and 1.6 ml/min per mg protein, respectively. When apparent intrinsic clearance was incorporated into a PBPK model, the simulated oral human profiles were in good agreement with observed data at low doses but were underestimated at high doses due to unexpected over-proportional increases in exposure with dose. In addition, the induction potential of RO6889678 on cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes and transporters at steady state was assessed and cotreatment with ritonavir revealed a complex drug-drug interaction with concurrent P450 inhibition and moderate UDP-glucuronosyltransferase induction. Furthermore, we report on the first evaluation of in vitro pharmacokinetics studies using HBV-infected HepatoPac cocultures. Thus, long-term liver models have great potential as translational research tools exploring pharmacokinetics of novel drugs in vitro in health and disease.

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Kratochwil, N. A., Triyatni, M., Mueller, M. B., Klammers, F., Leonard, B., Turley, D., … Fowler, S. (2018). Simultaneous assessment of clearance, metabolism, induction, and drug-drug interaction potential using a long-term in vitro liver model for a novel hepatitis b virus inhibitor. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 365(2), 237–248. https://doi.org/10.1124/jpet.117.245712

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