A mathematical model for the evaluation of the seasonal performances of electric air-to-water heat pumps for heating is used to analyze the efficiency of on-off heat pumps, multi-compressor heat pumps and heat pumps with inverter compressor, integrated by electric heaters as back-up system, in the service of several buildings located in different Italian climates. The paper points out the importance of a good dimensioning of the heat pump as a function of the building energy signature and of the climate of the city where the building is placed, in order to enhance the system seasonal efficiency.
Naldi, C., Dongellini, M., & Morini, G. L. (2015). Climate influence on seasonal performances of air-to-water heat pumps for heating. In Energy Procedia (Vol. 81, pp. 100–107). Elsevier Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2015.12.064