Rodent models of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have been used over decades to study the immunopathogenesis of the disease and to explore intervention strategies. Nevertheless, mouse models of RA reach their limit when it comes to testing of new therapeutic approaches such as cell-based therapies. Differences between the human and the murine immune system make it difficult to draw reliable conclusions about the success of immunotherapies. To overcome this issue, humanized mouse models have been established that mimic components of the human immune system in mice. Two main strategies have been pursued for humanization: the introduction of human transgenes such as human leukocyte antigen molecules or specific T cell receptors, and the generation of mouse/human chimera by transferring human cells or tissues into immunodeficient mice. Recently, both approaches have been combined to achieve more sophisticated humanized models of autoimmune diseases. This review discusses limitations of conventional mouse models of RA-like disease and provides a closer look into studies in humanized mice exploring their usefulness and necessity as preclinical models for testing of cell-based therapies in autoimmune diseases such as RA.
Schinnerling, K., Rosas, C., Soto, L., Thomas, R., & Aguillón, J. C. (2019). Humanized mouse models of rheumatoid arthritis for studies on immunopathogenesis and preclinical testing of cell-based therapies. Frontiers in Immunology. Frontiers Media S.A. https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00203