Background Absolute necessity in acute kidney injury (AKI) and ignorance in chronic kidney disease (CKD) make the use of un-cuffed, non-tunneled catheters an indispensable vascular access for hemodialysis. Although these catheters should be inserted under radiological guidance, it may not be feasible in certain circumstances. The aim of the present study was to evaluate safety and outcome of non-imaging assisted insertion of these catheters in internal jugular vein (IJV) for hemodialysis. Methods We analyzed 233 attempts of non-imaging assisted un-cuffed, non-tunneled IJV catheterization at our center. The immediate insertion complications, duration of use, rate and type of infection and other complications were assessed. Results Out of the 233 attempts, 223 (213-right, 10-left) were successful. The most common indication was AKI (n = 127, 54.5%), followed by CKD (n = 99, 42.5%). Successful catheterization at first attempt was achieved in 78.9%. Insertion complications were noted in 12.8% and included arterial puncture (5.2%), hematoma (3.0%) and malposition (2.1%). Amongst 219 catheters followed for 4825 days, the mean duration of use was 22 days. Catheter related infections occurred in 42 patients with an incidence of 8.7 per 1000 catheter days. Bacteraemia was present in 10/36 cases (27.7%), positive catheter tip cultures in 71.4% cases and staphylococcal species were the most common organism. Cumulative hazard analysis by Cox regression revealed a linear increase in the risk for infection with each week. Conclusion Non-imaging assisted insertion of uncuffed, non-tunneled catheters is associated with slightly higher rate of insertion complication but comparable outcome in terms of infection rate or days of use.
Rathi, M., Pinnamaneni, V. S. T., & Sakhuja, V. (2016). Non-imaging assisted insertion of un-cuffed, non-tunneled internal jugular venous catheters for hemodialysis: Safety and utility in modern day world. Biomedical Journal, 39(4), 283–288. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bj.2015.12.004