This study estimates the strength of a special mixture of high-strength concrete (HSC) with admixtures for use in a nuclear power plant (NPP). Nuclear power plant structures need a HSC with some additional qualities to operate the safe options. For this purpose, the experimented concrete was specially designed to fulfill the required qualities of NPP. For gaining these desirable qualities, it needs to monitor the concrete strength development process. Here, the PZT materials were used as sensors to acquire data by measuring the electromechanical impedance (EMI), and then cross correlation (CC) was calculated to look at changes according to strength development. Data were measured for 28 days, and over this period concrete can gain up to 96% of its design strength. This technique is based on a single sensor. After casting concrete, the PZT material starts vibrating as an actuator to produce vibrations. At the same time, it also works as a sensor to measure the dynamic response of the structure to the vibrations. With strength development, the resonant frequencies of the EMI start changing. To estimate the strength development, a fuzzy logic tool was used to analyze the parameters, allowing for us to estimate and predict the concrete strength. For cross-checking, the estimated strength was compared with the actual strength of concrete; this was determined by examining cuboid cores taken from specimens during experiments at the 1st, 3rd, 7th, 14th, and 28th days. According to the results, this approach of strength estimation and monitoring the strength development is useful for forecasting the stability of structures.
Choi, S. K., Tareen, N., Kim, J., Park, S., & Park, I. (2018). Real-time strength monitoring for concrete structures using EMI technique incorporating with fuzzy logic. Applied Sciences (Switzerland), 8(1). https://doi.org/10.3390/app8010075