A Multicentre Study of 5-year Outcomes Following Focal Therapy in Treating Clinically Significant Nonmetastatic Prostate Cancer

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Abstract

Background: Clinically significant nonmetastatic prostate cancer (PCa) is currently treated using whole-gland therapy. This approach is effective but can have urinary, sexual, and rectal side effects. Objective: To report on 5-yr PCa control following focal high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) therapy to treat individual areas of cancer within the prostate. Design, setting, and participants: This was a prospective study of 625 consecutive patients with nonmetastatic clinically significant PCa undergoing focal HIFU therapy (Sonablate) in secondary care centres between January 1, 2006 and December 31, 2015. A minimum of 6-mo follow-up was available for599 patients. Intermediate- or high-risk PCa was found in 505 patients (84%). Intervention: Disease was localised using multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) combined with targeted and systematic biopsies, or transperineal mapping biopsies. Areas of significant disease were treated. Follow-up included prostate-specific antigen (PSA) measurement, mpMRI, and biopsies. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis: The primary endpoint, failure-free survival (FFS), was defined as freedom from radical or systemic therapy, metastases, and cancer-specific mortality. Results and limitations: The median follow-up was 56 mo (interquartile range [IQR] 35–70). The median age was 65 yr (IQR 61–71) and median preoperative PSA was 7.2 ng/ml (IQR 5.2–10.0). FFS was 99% (95% confidence interval [CI] 98–100%) at 1 yr, 92% (95% CI 90–95%) at 3 yr, and 88% (95% 85–91%) at 5 yr. For the whole patient cohort, metastasis-free, cancer-specific, and overall survival at 5 yr was 98% (95% CI 97–99%), 100%, and 99% (95% CI 97–100%), respectively. Among patients who returned validated questionnaires, 241/247 (98%) achieved complete pad-free urinary continence and none required more than 1 pad/d. Limitations include the lack of long-term follow-up. Conclusions: Focal therapy for select patients with clinically significant nonmetastatic prostate cancer is effective in the medium term and has a low probability of side effects. Patient summary: In this multicentre study of 625 patients undergoing focal therapy using high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), failure-free survival, metastasis-free survival, cancer-specific survival, and overall survival were 88%, 98%, 100%, and 99%, respectively. Urinary incontinence (any pad use) was 2%. Focal HIFU therapy for patients with clinically significant prostate cancer that has not spread has a low probability of side effects and is effective at 5 yr. Our study shows that at median follow-up of approximately 5 yr after focal high-intensity focused ultrasound, nine out of ten patients with predominantly intermediate- or high-risk prostate cancer are able to avoid surgery, radiotherapy, and systemic therapy. Prostate cancer–specific survival was 100%. There was a low probability of urinary incontinence (2%), erectile dysfunction (15%), and rectal side effects (rare).

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Guillaumier, S., Peters, M., Arya, M., Afzal, N., Charman, S., Dudderidge, T., … Ahmed, H. U. (2018). A Multicentre Study of 5-year Outcomes Following Focal Therapy in Treating Clinically Significant Nonmetastatic Prostate Cancer. European Urology, 74(4), 422–429. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2018.06.006

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