Maternal Malnutrition and Offspring Sex Determine Juvenile Obesity and Metabolic Disorders in a Swine Model of Leptin Resistance

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Abstract

The present study aimed to determine, in a swine model of leptin resistance, the effects of type and timing of maternal malnutrition on growth patterns, adiposity and metabolic features of the progeny when exposed to an obesogenic diet during their juvenile development and possible concomitant effects of the offspring sex. Thus, four groups were considered. A CONTROL group involved pigs born from sows fed with a diet fulfilling their daily maintenance requirements for pregnancy. The treated groups involved the progeny of females fed with the same diet but fulfilling either 160% or 50% of pregnancy requirements during the entire gestation (OVERFED and UNDERFED, respectively) or 100% of requirements until Day 35 of pregnancy and 50% of such amount from Day 36 onwards (LATE-UNDERFED). OVERFED and UNDERFED offspring were more prone to higher corpulence and fat deposition from early postnatal stages, during breast-feeding; adiposity increased significantly when exposed to obesogenic diets, especially in females. The effects of sex were even more remarkable in LATE-UNDERFED offspring, which had similar corpulence to CONTROL piglets; however, females showed a clear predisposition to obesity. Furthermore, the three groups of pigs with maternal malnutrition showed evidences of metabolic syndrome and, in the case of individuals born from OVERFED sows, even of insulin resistance and the prodrome of type-2 diabetes. These findings support the main role of early nutritional programming in the current rise of obesity and associated diseases in ethnics with leptin resistance. © 2013 Barbero et al.

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Barbero, A., Astiz, S., Lopez-Bote, C. J., Perez-Solana, M. L., Ayuso, M., Garcia-Real, I., & Gonzalez-Bulnes, A. (2013). Maternal Malnutrition and Offspring Sex Determine Juvenile Obesity and Metabolic Disorders in a Swine Model of Leptin Resistance. PLoS ONE, 8(10). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078424

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