Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutations in low-grade gliomas (LGG) result in improved survival and DNA hypermethylation compared with IDH wild-type LGGs. IDH-mutant LGGs become hypomethylated during progression. It is uncertain whether methylation changes occur during IDH wild-type GBM progression and whether the methylome can be reprogrammed. This phase I study evaluated the safety, tolerability, efficacy, and methylome changes after l-methylfolate (LMF) treatment, in combination with temozolomide and bevacizumab in patients with recurrent high-grade glioma. Fourteen patients total, 13 with GBM, one with anaplastic astrocytoma, all IDH wild-type were enrolled in the study. All patients received LMF at either 15, 30, 60, or 90 mg daily plus temozolomide (75 mg/m2 5 days per month) and bevacizumab (10 mg/kg every two weeks).No MTD was identified. LMF-treated patients had median overall survival of 9.5 months [95% confidence interval (CI), 9.1–35.4] comparable with bevacizumab historical control 8.6 months (95% CI, 6.8–10.8). Six patients treated with LMF survived more than 650 days. Across all treatment doses, the most adverse events were diarrhea (7%, 1 patient, grade 2), reflux (7%, 1 patient, grade 2), and dysgeusia (7%, 1 patient, grade 2). In the six brains donated at death, there was a 25% increase in DNA methylated CpGs compared with the paired initial tumor. LMF in combination with temozolomide and bevacizumab was well tolerated in patients with recurrent IDH wild-type high-grade glioma. This small study did not establish a superior efficacy with addition of LMF compared with standard bevacizumab therapy; however, this study did show methylome reprogramming in high-grade glioma.
Salas, L. A., Stewart, T. G., Mobley, B. C., Peng, C., Liu, J., Loganathan, S. N., … Clark, S. W. (2022). Phase I Study of High-Dose l -Methylfolate in Combination with Temozolomide and Bevacizumab in Recurrent IDH Wild-Type High-Grade Glioma. Cancer Research Communications, 2(1), 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1158/2767-9764.crc-21-0088