© 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS Although we have seen revolutionary changes with multi-disciplinary management of patients with rectal cancer, the evaluation of genito-urinary sequelae remains of great concern. Precise pre-operative evaluation with validated scores allows detection of urinary disorders in 16 to 23% of patients, and sexual disorders in nearly 35% of men and 50% of women. Regardless of the surgical approach, it is fundamental to respect the autonomic innervation during total mesorectal excision in order to prevent these sequelae. Identification of these nerves can be facilitated by intra-operative neuro-stimulation. In spite of these precautions, de novo urinary sequelae are observed in nearly 33% of patients and bladder evacuation disorders in 25% of patients. Advanced age, pre-operative urinary disorders, female gender, and abdomino-perineal resection are independent risk factors for urinary sequelae. Early post-operative urodynamic abnormalities might be predictive of these sequelae and justify early physiotherapy. Likewise, sexual sequelae such as erectile and/or ejaculatory disorders, dyspareunia and lubrication deficits result in de novo cessation of sexual activity in 28% of men and 18% of women. Advanced age, neo-adjuvant radiation therapy, and abdomino-perineal resection are independent risk factors for sexual dysfunction. Pharmacotherapy with sildenafil has proven useful in the treatment of erectile disorders. Genito-urinary and ano-rectal sequelae occur concomitantly in more than one of ten patients, suggesting a potential common pathophysiology.
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