Extra-tropical cyclones in the present and future climate: A review

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Based on the availability of hemispheric gridded data sets from observations, analysis and global climate models, objective cyclone identification methods were developed and applied to these data sets. Due to the large amount of investigation methods combined with the variety of different datasets, a multitude of results exist, not only for the recent climate period but also for the next century, assuming anthropogenic changed conditions. Different thresholds, different physical quantities, and considerations of different atmospheric vertical levels add to a picture that is difficult to combine into a common view of cyclones, their variability and trends, in the real world and in GCM studies. Thus, this paper will give a comprehensive review of the actual knowledge on climatologies of mid-latitude cyclones for the Northern and Southern Hemisphere for the present climate and for its possible changes under anthropogenic climate conditions. © The Author(s) 2009.




Ulbrich, U., Leckebusch, G. C., & Pinto, J. G. (2009). Extra-tropical cyclones in the present and future climate: A review. In Theoretical and Applied Climatology (Vol. 96, pp. 117–131). Springer Wien. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00704-008-0083-8

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