Subjective state constructs are defined within the traditional domains of affect, motivation, and cognition. Currently, there is no overarching state model that interrelates constructs within the different domains. This article reports 3 studies that provide converging evidence for 3 fundamental state dimensions labeled task engagement, distress, and worry that integrate constructs across the traditional domains. Study 1 differentiated the state dimensions by factor analysis of the scales of the Dundee Stress State Questionnaire (G. Matthews et al., 1999). Study 2 showed differential state response to performance of tasks making different cog-nitive demands. Study 3 showed that states are correlated with differing patterns of appraisal and coping. The 3 stress state dimensions provide a general descriptive framework consistent with transactional accounts of stress and performance.
Matthews, G., Campbell, S. E., Falconer, S., Joyner, L. A., Huggins, J., Gilliland, K., … Warm, J. S. (2002). Fundamental dimensions of subjective state in performance settings: Task engagement, distress, and worry. Emotion, 2(4), 315–340. https://doi.org/10.1037//1528-3518.104.22.1685