In recent years, conductive diamond electrodes for electrochemical applications have been a major focus of research and development. The impetus behind such endeavors could be attributed to their wide potential window, low background current, chemical inertness, and mechanical durability. Several analytes can be oxidized by conducting diamond compared to other carbon-based materials before the breakdown of water in aqueous electrolytes. This is important for detecting and/or identifying species in solution since oxygen and hydrogen evolution do not interfere with the analysis. Thus, conductive diamond electrodes take electrochemical detection into new areas and extend their usefulness to analytes which are not feasible with conventional electrode materials. Different types of diamond electrodes, polycrystalline, microcrystalline, nanocrystalline and ultrananocrystalline, have been synthesized and characterized. Of particular interest is the synthesis of boron-doped diamond (BDD) films by chemical vapor deposition on various substrates. In the tetrahedral diamond lattice, each carbon atom is covalently bonded to its neighbors forming an extremely robust crystalline structure. Some carbon atoms in the lattice are substituted with boron to provide electrical conductivity. Modification strategies of doped diamond electrodes with metallic nanoparticles and/or electropolymerized films are of importance to impart novel characteristics or to improve the performance of diamond electrodes. Biofunctionalization of diamond films is also feasible to foster several useful bioanalytical applications. A plethora of opportunities for nanoscale analytical devices based on conducting diamond is anticipated in the very near future © 2009 The Royal Society of Chemistry.
Luong, J. H. T., Male, K. B., & Glennon, J. D. (2009). Boron-doped diamond electrode: Synthesis, characterization, functionalization and analytical applications. Analyst. Royal Society of Chemistry. https://doi.org/10.1039/b910206j