Tumor angiogenesis is one of the major hallmarks of tumor progression. Nobiletin is a natural flavonoid isolated from citrus peel that has anti-angiogenic activity. Steroid receptor coactivator (Src) is an intracellular tyrosine kinase so that focal adhesion kinase (FAK) binds to Src to play a role in tumor angiogenesis. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a marker for tumor angiogenesis which interacts with Src. Paxillin (PXN) acts as a downstream target for both FAK and STAT3. The main goal of this study was to assess inhibition of tumor angiogenesis by nobiletin in estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer cells via Src, FAK, and STAT3-mediated signaling through PXN. Treatment with nobiletin in MCF-7 and T47D breast cancer cells inhibited angiogenesis markers, based on western blotting and RT-PCR. Validation of in vitro angiogenesis in the human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) endothelial cell line proved the anti-angiogenic activity of nobiletin. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay and the ChIP assay showed that nobiletin inhibits STAT3/DNA binding activity and STAT3 binding to a novel binding site of the PXN gene promoter. We also investigated the migration and invasive ability of nobiletin in ER+ cells. Nobiletin inhibited tumor angiogenesis by regulating Src, FAK, and STAT3 signaling through PXN in ER+ breast cancer cells.
Nipin, S. P., Kang, D. Y., Joung, Y. H., Park, J. H., Kim, W. S., Lee, H. K., … Yang, Y. M. (2017). Nobiletin inhibits angiogenesis by regulating Src/FAK/STAT3-mediated signaling through PXN In ER+ breast cancer cells. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 18(5). https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18050935