Purpose: To evaluate the outcomes of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) for flow-enabled clearance of portal (PVT), splenic (SVT) and/or superior mesenteric (MVT) vein thrombosis. Patients and methods: In this single-center study, 12 patients underwent TIPS using Viatorr covered stent-grafts (W.L. Gore & Associates, Flagstaff, AZ, USA) from 2008-2014 for PVT as a primary (n=8) or secondary (n=4) indication. TIPS were not accompanied by pharmacomechanical clot disruption; rather, shunts served to increase portal blood flow to allow flow-mediated physiologic clot dissolution. Pre- and post-TIPS cross-sectional imaging were used to assess clot location, size, and clearance, defined by resolution (vessel patency with no clot), reduction (decrease in clot size), stability (no change in clot size), or extension (increase in clot size). Results: The cohort included 5 men and 7 women (median age 63 years, range 45-73 years, median MELD score 15) with 30 non-occlusive and asymptomatic thrombi spanning main or intrahepatic PVT (n=15/30, 50%), SVT (n=6/30, 20%), and MVT (n=9/30, 30%). TIPS were generally created with 10mm covered stent-grafts; mean final portosystemic pressure gradient was 8mmHg. At mean 190 days post-TIPS, 58% (n=7/12) had clot resolution, 33% (n=4/12) had clot reduction, and 8% (n=1/12) had stable clot; there were no cases of clot extension. Resolution rate was 67% for PVT (10/15), SVT (4/6), and MVT (6/9). Two of 12 (17%) patients underwent successful liver transplant post-TIPS. Conclusion: TIPS prompts dissolution of or decrease in PVT, SVT, and MVT in cirrhotic patients. This may be a useful approach notwithstanding omission of pharmacomechanical methods.
Lakhoo, J., & Gaba, R. C. (2016). Outcomes of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt creation for flow-enabled dissolution of spleno-mesenterico-portal venous thrombosis. Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging, 97(11), 1085–1093. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diii.2016.07.005