Effect of oral dextromethorphan versus oral ketamine on sevoflurane related emergence agitation in children undergoing adenotonsillectomy

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Background: Emergence agitation is a popular phenomenon after sevoflurane anesthesia. Our aim was to study the efficacy of oral dextromethorphan compared to oral ketamine on sevoflurane related agitation. Methods: In a prospective, randomized, double- blinded study 120, ASA I, aged 4-10 years old children undergoing adenotonsillectomy were randomly divided into three groups to receive oral dextromethorphan 1 mg/kg (Group D, n = 39), oral ketamine 5 mg/kg (Group K, n = 39) or placebo(Group C, n = 38) as premedication 1 h before surgery. Standard general anesthesia was induced and maintained with sevoflurane in N 2O/O 2. The following were recorded by a blinded anesthetist; Child separation and cooperation at induction, duration of operation, duration of anesthesia, duration of extubation, duration of emergence, state of emergence on admission to PACU using emergence agitation scale, number of patients required postoperative fentanyl to control agitation, duration of discharge from PACU, vital signs (heart rate, blood pressure, and Spo 2) in PACU, and side effects (Nausea, vomiting, respiratory depression, and hallucination). Results: The agitated patients that required fentanyl treatment were statistically significant low in groups D and K compared to group C (p < 0.05). Child separation and child cooperation at induction from parents was successful in all children in group K with statistical significant difference compared to other groups (p < 0.05).There were increases in duration of anesthesia, extubation, and emergence in group K compared to other groups without increase in the duration of stay in PACU. Conclusion: Oral premedication with either dextromethorphan 1 mg/kg or ketamine 5 mg/kg were comparable in reducing significantly the incidence of postoperative sevoflurane related emergence agitation in comparison to placebo treated group without reported side effects in children undergoing adenotonsillectomy. © 2012 Egyptian Society of Anesthesiologists. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.




Abdelmawgoud, A., & Mohy, A. (2012). Effect of oral dextromethorphan versus oral ketamine on sevoflurane related emergence agitation in children undergoing adenotonsillectomy. Egyptian Journal of Anaesthesia, 28(4), 243–248. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egja.2012.05.005

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