Who Votes: City Election Timing and Voter Composition

Citations of this article
Mendeley users who have this article in their library.
Get full text


Low and uneven turnout is a serious problem for local democracy. Fortunately, one simple reform - shifting the timing of local elections so they are held on the same day as national contests - can substantially increase participation. Considerable research shows that on-cycle November elections generally double local voter turnout compared with stand-alone local contests. But does higher turnout mean a more representative electorate? On that critical question, the evidence is slim and mixed. We combine information on election timing with detailed microtargeting data that includes voter demographic information to examine how election timing influences voter composition in city elections. We find that moving to on-cycle elections in California leads to an electorate that is considerably more representative in terms of race, age, and partisanship - especially when these local elections coincide with a presidential election. Our results suggest that on-cycle elections can improve local democracy.




Hajnal, Z. L., Kogan, V., & Markarian, G. A. (2022). Who Votes: City Election Timing and Voter Composition. American Political Science Review, 116(1), 374–383. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0003055421000915

Register to see more suggestions

Mendeley helps you to discover research relevant for your work.

Already have an account?

Save time finding and organizing research with Mendeley

Sign up for free