One-pipe hydronic heating systems in their active (decentralized pumping) form promise great benefits over traditional two-pipe variable volume systems, and even more so over variable air volume systems. The heat exchanger units are connected in series, which presents its challenges and opportunities. This paper presents a model predictive controller capable of harnessing as many benefits as there is in the system when used in a building. A case study on a small office building illustrates the capabilities and validates the concept.
Dostal, J., & Baumelt, T. (2019). Model predictive control for buildings with active one-pipe hydronic heating. In E3S Web of Conferences (Vol. 111). EDP Sciences. https://doi.org/10.1051/e3sconf/201911104050